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  Anatomy Basics »  Viewing The Cell     [Image 22 of 24]  :: Jump To  
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Regiones Membri Inferioris 2 * Regiones membri inferioris (Aspectus posterior)
1 - Regio glutaealis, 
2 - Regio femoralis posterior,
3 - Regio genus posterior,
4 - Regio cruralis posterior= Reg. suralis,
5 - Regio calcanea,
6 - Planta pedis.

Regiones Membri Superioris * Regiones membri superioris
1 - Regio deltoidea,
2 - Regio brachialis anterior,
3 - Regio cubitalis anterior,
4 - Regio antebrachialis anterior,
5 - Regio antebrachialis posterior, 
6 - Regio carpalis anterior et posterior,
7 - Dorsum manus,
8 - Digiti, in this illustration pointing at  Digitus secundus= Index

Regiones Pectorales * Regiones Pectorales
1 - Regio pectoralis,
2 - Regio praesternalis,
3 - Trigonum clavipectorale,
4 - Regio axillaris.

Skeleton * The Human Skeleton
Bones form the skeleton, a protective and supportive framework, which has the following functions:
The skeletal system protects and stabilizes inner structures like the thoracic organs (lungs, heart) or the brain. It acts as a lever to provide movement by muscular contractions and supports the body's upright posture, it produces blood cells in marrow (Haematopoiesis) and stores almost all of the body's calcium. 
The skeleton of an adult consists of 206 bones. This number must be seen as a variable because of possible variations in the number of the ribs, the sacral vertebrae or the sesamoid bones.
Following the body axis, the skeleton may be divided into an axial skeleton, which consists of the bones of the skull, the hyoid bone, the vertebral column and the thoracic cage, and into an appendicular skeleton, consisting of the pectoral- and pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper- and lower limbs:

- Axial skeleton:  The bones of the Skull, Hyoid bone, the bones of the Vertebral column (Vertebrae), Sternum, Ribs
- Appendicular skeleton: The Pelvic bone, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, bones of the Tarsus and Metatarsus, Phalanges, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, bones of the Carpus and Metacarpus

Standard Anatomic Position * Standard Anatomic Position of the Body
In order to describe positions and orientations of the structures of the human body in three dimensions, the body is supposed to be in standing position, looking forward, arms at sides with palms of the hands pointing forward, and feet together pointing forward.

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The Cell.jpg - nov 21, 2004
Types of Bones * Types of Bones
This image presents the most common types of bones. Based on shape, bones (Ossa) can be classified as follows:

- Long bones (Ossa longa) are longer than they are wide. They are tubular in shape and have two ends. The long cylindrical body (Corpus, Diaphysis) consists of compact bone and has a central medullar cavity. The ends consist of spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. Typical long bones are the tubular bones of the limbs (Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Femur...). 
- Short bones (Ossa brevia) are cubical in shape. They consist of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. Ossa brevia can be found in the wrist and ankle (Carpus and Tarsus).
- Flat bones (Ossa plana) are thin and have broad surfaces. They are composed of two layers of compact bone tissue enclosing between them a variable quantity of cancellous bone (called Diploe in the skull bones). The Diploe can be locally absorbed and become pneumatic in some skull bones, forming inner bone cavities filled with air (Sinus). Such pneumatic skull bones are also called Ossa pneumatici. The flat bones are Os coxae (the hip bone), Scapula (shoulder blade), Sternum (breastbone), Costae (ribs), and some skull bones (Os frontale, Os occipitale, Os parietale…).
- Irregular bones (Ossa irregularia) cannot be grouped into the upper categories because of their shape. They consist of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. Irregular bones are the Vertebrae, Os sacrum, Mandibula, Os sphenoidale...
- Sesamoid bones (Ossa sesamoidea) are a special type of bones which occur in tendons. A typical sesamoid bone is the Patella of the knee. According to some authors Patella can also belong to the group of short or flat bones.

Views Areas and Perspectives * Views, areas and perspectives
When describing the body or a structure in three dimensions, there are six standard perspectives, which can also be combined or mixed (example: a view from behind and from the base) following the rules of three dimensional presentations (it helps to put the body into a virtual cube). 

The following perspectives were first described for skulls but can be used for the whole body.

The front perspective is called Norma frontalis, from behind it is Norma occipitalis or dorsalis. The side perspective is called Norma lateralis. 
Norma basalis (or basilaris) is the perspective from the base, Norma verticalis the one from above. As already mentioned, two perspectives can be combined to achieve an oblique view of some structures (for example posterolateral view). 
Some authors also use the terms Aspectus or Facies to describe a perspective (Aspectus inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, lateralis or Facies interna, externa, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior and lateralis).

Image: The Cell
This image presents the basic cellular structures. The nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA). It is responsible for the function and the replication of the cell. The mitochondria provide with their enzymes the cellular energy support. The are max. 6 micrometers long. The endoplasmatic reticulum builds proteins and enzymes, which are specific for the cellular function and excretion. The lysosomes are small digestive particles, which contain material to be sliced and eliminated. The cell membrane supports the cellular integrity and protects the cell from external alterations. It encapsulates the cytoplasma, which is the special fluid inside the cell. It bears the organelles and the nucleus.
Page last updated on nov 23, 2004