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  Anatomy Basics  (24 Slides)     [Page 2 of 3] :: Jump To  
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Planes of the Body * Planes of the human body
Because of different presentations of body structures in images (for example illustration, x-ray, or Ct), it is important to know the various planes of reference:

- The sagittal (median) plane is a vertical anteroposterior plane, which divides the body into right and left halves. The slices paralleling this plane are called paramediansagittal or parasagittal planes. 
- The frontal (or coronal) plane is situated at a right angle to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior halves. 
- The transverse (or horizontal) plane, perpendicular to the sagittal and coronal plane, divides the body into superior and inferior halves. In case of an organ or other body structure, the horizontal plane is at a right angle to the long axis of that structure (cross section).
It is also possible to make oblique planes (for example MR- tomography special cuts), which lie at any other angles. 

Image based on a template from the LifeART Collection, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ©1989- 2001
Position Location Direction * Positions, Relative Locations and DirectionsTo describe topographic relationships of structures or parts to other structures in the body, we use the following terms:

- Superior or cranial (cephalic) indicate that a structure is located at a higher level or closer to the head. The opposite of these are inferior or caudal, which indicate that a structure is located at a lower level or downwards. In case of the limbs, the terms proximal and distal indicate the level or the relative distance from the attached end of the limb (for example: the arm in standard anatomic position; proximal would mean near to the shoulder; distal would mean further away or located below).
- The terms anterior or ventral indicate a relation to the front of the body or of a bone (e.g. anterior surface). The terms posterior or dorsal indicate that a structure is located near to the back of the body.
- The terms medial and lateral refer to a position in relation to the medial plane (or the long axis) of the body or of a structure (medial: toward midline; lateral: away from midline or located at the side).
- The terms superficial or profundal are used to describe a position or location relative to the surface of areas, structures or tissues. The term superficial indicates that a structure is located close to the surface of a tissue, the term profundal indicates that it is located more deeply.
- The terms internal and external describe a structure's position or a view in relation to inner and outer surfaces (for example in organs or cavities).
- The term ipsilateral indicates that two structures are located on same side of the body.
- The term contralateral indicates the opposite (opposite side of the body).
Regiones Abdominales * Regiones abdominales
1 - Regio epigastrica,
2 - Regio hypochondriaca,
3 - Regio umbilicalis,
4 - Regio lateralis,
5 - Regio pubica,
6 - Regio inguinalis.

The regions of the stomach (Regiones abdominales) can be described with virtual lines: a vertical line through the middle of the Clavicula (medioclavicular line), a horizontal line halfway between the upper Sternum and the upper genital region (the horizontal layer is called Planum transpyloricum), and a horizontal line between the humps of the pelvic bone (Tuberculum iliacum) on both sides (the horizontal layer is called Planum intertuberculare).
Regio epigastrica is located right under the Processus xiphoideus (at the bottom of Sternum) of the skeletal Thorax, marked by Planum transpyloricum at the bottom, and the medioclavicular lines on both sides. Regio hypochondriaca is located on both sides of Regio epigastrica, marked also by the Thorax, the medioclavicular line and Planum transpyloricum. Regio umbilicalis (the area around the belly) is marked by medioclavicular lines on both sides, by Planum transpyloricum at the top and Planum intertuberculare at the bottom. Regio lateralis is located on both sides of Regio umbilicalis, marked by Planum transpyloricum, Planum intertuberculare and medioclavicular lines on both sides. 
Regio pubica is located under the Regio umbilicalis, with a flowing transition into the lower located non-abdominal genital region (Regio urogenitalis). Regio inguinalis is located on both sides of Regio pubica. It is marked at the top by the Planum intertuberculare and the groin ligament (Ligamentum inguinale between the frontal upper spine of the pelvic bone= Spina iliaca anterior superior to the hump of the pubic bone= Tuberculum pubicum) at the bottom.
Regiones Capitis * Regiones capitis
Reg. frontalis (1), 
Reg. orbitalis (2), 
Reg. nasalis (3), 
Reg. infraorbitalis (4), 
Reg. oralis (5),
 Reg. mentalis (6), 
Reg. buccalis (7),
 Reg. zygomatica (8), 
Reg. temporalis (9), 
Reg. parietalis (10), 
Reg. occipitalis (11)
Regiones Colli * Regiones Colli
1 - Regio sternocleidomastoidea, 
2 - Trigonum submentale, 
3 - Trigonum musculare,
4 - Trigonum submandibulare,
5 - Trigonum caroticum,
6 - Regio cervicalis lateralis.
  Planes of the Body  
  Position Location Direction  
  Regiones Abdominales  
  Regiones Capitis  
  Regiones Colli  
Regiones Membri Inferioris 1 * Regiones membri inferioris (Aspectus anterior)
1 - Regio femoralis anterior,
2 - Trigonum femorale,
3 - Regio genus anterior,
4 - Regio cruralis anterior,
5 - Dorsum pedis,
6 - Digiti. 

The regions of the leg (Regiones membri inferioris) begin below Regio inguinalis on the front and below Regio lumbaris on the backside.
The front side of the Femur (thigh) is called Regio femoralis anterior, the back side is covered by Regio glutaealis above the Musculus glutaeus maximus (origin at Os ilium, Os sacrum and Os coccygis= the coccyx; insertion at Femur and Tractus iliotibialis) and Regio femoralis posterior, divided by Sulcus glutaealis (bottom furrow).
Regio femoralis anterior contains a region inside, called Trigonum femorale, marked by Musculus sartorius (origin at the frontal upper spine of the pelvic bone= Spina iliaca anterior superior; insertion at upper Tibia) and Musculus adductor longus (origin at the pubic bone= Os pubis; insertion at the back shaft of Femur bone= Linea aspera) at the sides and Regio inguinalis at the top. The area around the knee joint is called Regio genus (anterior and posterior). 
The lower leg (Crus) begins under this area, consisting of Regio cruralis anterior and posterior (the calf area is also called Sura or Regio suralis). The area of the heel is called Regio calcanea (Calx). The foot (Pes) can be divided into an upper area (Dorsum pedis), directed against the body, and a bottom area= the sole (Planta pedis), directed against the ground. 
Similar to the hands, the foot can be further divided into a Tarsus, Metatarsus and Digiti (Toes; I= Hallux, II= Digitus secundus, III= Digitus tertius, IV= Digitus quartus, V= Digitus minimus).
Regiones Membri Inferioris 2 * Regiones membri inferioris (Aspectus posterior)
1 - Regio glutaealis, 
2 - Regio femoralis posterior,
3 - Regio genus posterior,
4 - Regio cruralis posterior= Reg. suralis,
5 - Regio calcanea,
6 - Planta pedis.
Regiones Membri Superioris * Regiones membri superioris
1 - Regio deltoidea,
2 - Regio brachialis anterior,
3 - Regio cubitalis anterior,
4 - Regio antebrachialis anterior,
5 - Regio antebrachialis posterior, 
6 - Regio carpalis anterior et posterior,
7 - Dorsum manus,
8 - Digiti, in this illustration pointing at  Digitus secundus= Index
Regiones Pectorales * Regiones Pectorales
1 - Regio pectoralis,
2 - Regio praesternalis,
3 - Trigonum clavipectorale,
4 - Regio axillaris.
Skeleton * The Human Skeleton
Bones form the skeleton, a protective and supportive framework, which has the following functions:
The skeletal system protects and stabilizes inner structures like the thoracic organs (lungs, heart) or the brain. It acts as a lever to provide movement by muscular contractions and supports the body's upright posture, it produces blood cells in marrow (Haematopoiesis) and stores almost all of the body's calcium. 
The skeleton of an adult consists of 206 bones. This number must be seen as a variable because of possible variations in the number of the ribs, the sacral vertebrae or the sesamoid bones.
Following the body axis, the skeleton may be divided into an axial skeleton, which consists of the bones of the skull, the hyoid bone, the vertebral column and the thoracic cage, and into an appendicular skeleton, consisting of the pectoral- and pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper- and lower limbs:

- Axial skeleton:  The bones of the Skull, Hyoid bone, the bones of the Vertebral column (Vertebrae), Sternum, Ribs
- Appendicular skeleton: The Pelvic bone, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, bones of the Tarsus and Metatarsus, Phalanges, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, bones of the Carpus and Metacarpus
  Regiones Membri Inferioris 1  
  Regiones Membri Inferioris 2  
  Regiones Membri Superioris  
  Regiones Pectorales  
Page last updated on nov 23, 2004