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  Anatomy Basics  (24 Slides)     [Page 3 of 3] :: Jump To  
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Standard Anatomic Position * Standard Anatomic Position of the Body
In order to describe positions and orientations of the structures of the human body in three dimensions, the body is supposed to be in standing position, looking forward, arms at sides with palms of the hands pointing forward, and feet together pointing forward.
The Cell * The CellThis image presents the basic cellular structures.
The nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA). It is responsible for the function and  the replication of the cell.
The mitochondria provide with their enzymes the cellular energy support. The are max. 6 micrometers long.
The endoplasmatic reticulum builds proteins and enzymes, which are specific for the cellular function and excretion.
The lysosomes are small digestive particles, which contain material to be sliced and eliminated.
The cell membrane supports the cellular integrity and protects the cell from external alterations. It encapsulates the cytoplasma, which is the special fluid inside the cell. It bears the organelles and the nucleus.
Types of Bones * Types of Bones
This image presents the most common types of bones. Based on shape, bones (Ossa) can be classified as follows:

- Long bones (Ossa longa) are longer than they are wide. They are tubular in shape and have two ends. The long cylindrical body (Corpus, Diaphysis) consists of compact bone and has a central medullar cavity. The ends consist of spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. Typical long bones are the tubular bones of the limbs (Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Femur...). 
- Short bones (Ossa brevia) are cubical in shape. They consist of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. Ossa brevia can be found in the wrist and ankle (Carpus and Tarsus).
- Flat bones (Ossa plana) are thin and have broad surfaces. They are composed of two layers of compact bone tissue enclosing between them a variable quantity of cancellous bone (called Diploe in the skull bones). The Diploe can be locally absorbed and become pneumatic in some skull bones, forming inner bone cavities filled with air (Sinus). Such pneumatic skull bones are also called Ossa pneumatici. The flat bones are Os coxae (the hip bone), Scapula (shoulder blade), Sternum (breastbone), Costae (ribs), and some skull bones (Os frontale, Os occipitale, Os parietale…).
- Irregular bones (Ossa irregularia) cannot be grouped into the upper categories because of their shape. They consist of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. Irregular bones are the Vertebrae, Os sacrum, Mandibula, Os sphenoidale...
- Sesamoid bones (Ossa sesamoidea) are a special type of bones which occur in tendons. A typical sesamoid bone is the Patella of the knee. According to some authors Patella can also belong to the group of short or flat bones.
Views Areas and Perspectives * Views, areas and perspectives
When describing the body or a structure in three dimensions, there are six standard perspectives, which can also be combined or mixed (example: a view from behind and from the base) following the rules of three dimensional presentations (it helps to put the body into a virtual cube). 

The following perspectives were first described for skulls but can be used for the whole body.

The front perspective is called Norma frontalis, from behind it is Norma occipitalis or dorsalis. The side perspective is called Norma lateralis. 
Norma basalis (or basilaris) is the perspective from the base, Norma verticalis the one from above. As already mentioned, two perspectives can be combined to achieve an oblique view of some structures (for example posterolateral view). 
Some authors also use the terms Aspectus or Facies to describe a perspective (Aspectus inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, lateralis or Facies interna, externa, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior and lateralis).
  Standard Anatomic Position  
  The Cell  
  Types of Bones  
  Views Areas and Perspectives  
Page last updated on nov 23, 2004